Item – Theses Canada

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Joshua, Anthony.
Causes and Consequences of Genomic Instability in Prostatic Carcinogenesis.
University of Toronto, NO_R
Toronto : University of Toronto, NO_R.
1 online resource
Includes bibliographical references.
The evolution of prostate cancer from normal epithelium via the preneoplastic lesion of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia to invasive carcinoma is characterised by a number of particular genomic abnormalities that are predominantly generated in the preneoplastic phase. Whilst there are numerous candidates for the cause of these alterations, telomere dysfunction is thought to be a major contributor. Telomeres are the terminal ends of human chromosomes, and when dysfunctional can lead to break-fusion-bridge cycles and multi-polar mitoses that generate numerical and structural chromosomal instability. The results presented reinforce the association of telomere dysfunction with the generation of certain markers of genomic instability such as abnormalities of the arms of chromosome 8. Furthermore, this work clarifies that the TMPRSSS2-ERG aberrations are not telomere related phenomena and are associated with a genomic deletion in a proportion of cases. Similarly, the PTEN microdeletions did not appear to have an association with telomere attrition. A previously unrecognised association between the telomere length in various types of prostatic epithelia and adjacent stroma is defined, suggesting evidence of a micro-environmental field effect in the generation of prostatic neoplasia. Finally, when examined retrospectively, it appears that telomere attrition, both in the HPIN epithelium and the stroma has independent prognostic value in the diagnosis of prostate cancer after a previous diagnosis of HPIN. Taken together, the research presented suggests important avenues for further research to determine the nature of barriers to the evolution of prostatic carcinogenesis such as oncogene- and telomere-induced senescence that may be exploited for therapeutic gain. These understandings may also help tailor management for prostate cancer such as risk stratification for men with HPIN and the use of targeted agents such as AKT inhibitors and telomerase inhibitors. In more advanced disease, translational application of this work has enabled a clinical trial of cytarabine in the treatment of metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer.
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Genomic Instability.